IN KUNGUR ICE CAVE
Perm University, Perm, Russia
Since 1992 Perm University together with Kungur station of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences carries on complex investigation of Kungur ice cave in accordance with the scientific program "Universities of Russia". The cave of 5.6 km length is located in the vicinity of Kungur City, Perm region. It is formed in gypsum and anhydrite interbedded by limestone and dolomite of Kungur stage, Lower Permian. The program mentioned covers mineralogical-petrophysical, hydrochemical, hydrogeological, geophysical researches, regime observations. Mineral composition of bed rocks and cave neogenesis is studied by crystal optics, immersion, roentgenostructural methods. In 80 samples got from different parts of the cave there were discovered kaolinite, smectite, allophane, fluorite, celestine and other minerals previously unknown here. After hydrochemical testing of drops, karst and lake water, ice, the processes and conditions of their chemical composition formation were characterized. Main parameters of cave karst water level, mineralization and temperature are determined from observation data of several years. The contours of water table are mapped, they give the idea of karst water dynamics in karsting massif. Kungur station continues the observation of humidity, temperature, degree and the state of Ice formations. The ultimate aim of investigation is the deepening of theoretical knowledge of regularities of gypsum ice cave formation, the development of recommendations concerning preservation of natural regime and protection of the most visited tourist cave in Russia.
III3?TYPICAL KARST AREA - SKOCJANSKE J AME (SLOVENIA) AND KARST OF TRNOVSKI GOZD
Institute for Karst Research, Slovenia
1.1 SKOCJANSKE JAME?
According to program and plan for 1993 we investigated, studied respectively the following topic in the area of Skocjanske Jame Karst:
??? -new geodetic survey and history of Skocjanske jame investigations (A.Mihevc & A.Kranjc).?
??? -lithostratigraphy and paleoecology of Skocjanske jame Karst (Geolo gical investigations) (M.Knez).?
??? -interpretation of geological structure above Skocjanske jame with aerophoto snapshots (S.Sebela).?
??? -the water quality of Reka River (J.Kogovsek).
??? -erosion and corrosion measurements in the active part of Skocjan ske jame (A.Mihevc).
Besides, in the Village Lipica on Kras the International Karstological School"Classical Karst" was held between 20-23, September, 1993. Ten communications treating Classical Karst and Skocjanske jame as well as the field work were dedicated to Skocjanske jame and surrounding karst.
A.Mihevc attended the meeting of IGCP 299 group in Beijing, August 4, 1993.
1.2 TRNOVSKI GOZD
Karst plateau of Trnovski gozd was chosen for the field tests within the 7 Symposium on water Tracing (1997) and international investigation and tracer experiments started in 1993. For this purpose we prepared special edition "REPORTS 7. SWT" for the following 4 years, No.1 (Some data on Trnovsko Banjska planota) was published in 1993.
2. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF ACHIEVED WORK AND PRELIMI NARY RESULTS
2.1 SKOCJANSKE JAME KARST AREA?
2.1.1 New geodetic survey and history of Skocjanske jame investig ations
In order to achieve the foreseen researches, to locate the research es respectively, the detailed survey of the Skocjanske jame is necessary.
In 1993 the survey of Hanke's channel was completed, including 22 cross sections made by "A.MT. Profiler 2000" with laser distance meter, first used in any Slovenian cave. The detailed survey of Tiha jama was completed. For the continuation of the survey of the main channels, the stabilization of the additional polygon points is necessary. The survey was achieved by the Institute's geodetic technician F.Drole and by the associate co-workers.
The review of older sources on investigation, exploration and survey of Skocjanske jame, of the Hanke's channel in particular, with a special accent given to the names of particular parts of the cave and to the single details was carried on.
2.1.2 Lithostratigraphy and paleoecology of Skocjanske j ame karst (Geological investigations)
The researches were focused on the area of the collapse doline Velik a dolina in Skocjanske jame.
From lithopetrology and stratigraphy the origin of channels (Phreatic channels) in the karst underground is almost unknown. In order to find out if there is any relation between the lithology and the origin of the initial cave passages the following investigations were carried out in the past year.
Statistically 113 caves on the area covering 102 km2?were processed. Bes ide other connections it was stated that the average density of the caves on the mentionned terrain is about 1 cave/km2, but he Turonian with density of 2.18 and Maastrichtian with 0.32 cave/km2?are outstanding.
In Velika dolina all the bedding planes were identified and numbered. All the channels seen in the walls of the collapse doline are registered and mostly classified in the stratigraphical column. Differentiated are those originating along faults and those along bedding planes. The last ones were studied in detail from the lithostratigraphical point of view.
More than 120 samples of the rocks were gathered for the microscopic treatment and other analyses from the immediate vicinity of the bedding planes and from among them. Directly above and below an important bedding plane the samples were taken continuously in the thickness of 2 m. The sampling among the bedding planes was less frequent, it was done there where the modification in the sedimentation was observed.
2.1.3 Interpretation of geological structure above Sko cjanske jame with aerophoto snapshots
The researches were limited to the surface above the Skocjanske jame by the use of the aerophoto snapshots in the scale 1:5,000.
By stereoscopic observations the morphological levels of the ground, controlled by the geological setting could be distinguished. In several cases the human impact on the landscape, lasting some hundred years or even recent influences, presents the aggravating circumstances at the interpretation of the aerophoto snapshots. Forest roads, e.g. in particular directions could be confound for geological structural elements as are tectonically crushed zones, for instance. In some cases the old roads were built in more broken rocks which are the effect of tectonically crushed zones in the area of Skocjanske jame.
On the magnified areophoto snapshots the geological structural elements are drawn in, namely tectonic, as the lithological limits were not possible to be defined. To distinguish the various sorts of tectonically crushed zones among them was not possible but tectonically lines were defined only. In some cases expressed fault zones could be distinguished from less expressed, younger from older respectively. In several morphological levels (uplifted or subsided terrain regarding the wider area) one can infer to uplifting or subsiding of particular blocks.
By detailed tectonic-lithological mapping of the surface above the cave in the scale 1:5,000 the interpretation data of the aerophoto snapshots will be the most representatively checked.
2.1.4 Reka River quality
The quality of the Reka River along its superficial flow to the pono r (near Vreme, near Skofije, and at the ponor in the Svetina Chamber) at low water level was checked out. The quality was compared on the base of specific electric conductivity, pH, water hardness, chlorides, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates contents and chemical and biochemical oxygen demand. The rate COD/BOD along the river flow augment a little although the COD and BOD themselves at the same time decreased a bit.
2.1.5 Erosion and corrosion measurements in the active part of skocjanske jame
The net of observation points for micrometric measurements was made denser and new readings were done. The surfaces controlled by corrosion and erosion are observed and the flowstone deposition intensity is measured as well.
First readings after one year since we measure in Skocjanske jame gave us the erosion amount of 0.11-0.9 mm, corrosion between 0.005 to 0.01 mm and the flowstone growth up to 0.82 mm/y. The amout of annual corrosion measured at the old inscription in Ponor in Odolina is between 0.105-0.183 mm.
Near Skocjanske jame, in Matarsko podolje, on the southern side of the Brkini Hills three caves were surveyed and explored in order to have speleomorphological comparisons.
2.2 TRNOVSKI GOZD
On the area of the plateau six new caves were explored. All are vadose potholes, in three of them the ice remains permanently. In the deepest cave of the plateau the measuring points for corrosion measurements at the bottom of the potholes were installed and first readings were done.
Morphological analysis of the vadose potholes indicates strong connection between the pothole genesis and fissure zones oriented in north-south direction. The remains of phreatic channels of centimeter or decimeter size are preserved in the potholes or they connect the parallel series of potholes along the fault zones.
In September 1992 the area of Trnovski gozd was chosen by the Association of Tracer Hydrology for the research polygon for 7th SWT. First geological, speleological and hydrological results were published in the Reports 7. SWT, no.1. In October 1993 the first water tracing test with two dyes in the Hubelj karst spring background was accomplished.
3. BIBLIOGRAPHY RELATED TO WORK ON THE PROJECT NO.299
Kogovsek,J., 1993: Karst waters and how they are endangered. Nase jame, 35, 1, 67-76, Ljubljana.
Kogovsek,J., 1992: Flowstone deposition in the Slovenian caves. Acta carsologica, 21, 167-173, Ljubljana.
Kranjc,A., 1992: 45 let raziskovanja degradacije in varstva slovenskega k rasa v Institutu za raziskovanje krasa. (45 Years of Karst Degradation and Protection Research in Karst Research Institute) Acta carsologica, 21, 195-207, Ljubljana.
Kranjc,A., 1992: Zadnji"veliki problem" Skocjanskih jam po sto letih resen. Nase jame, 34, 149-151, Ljubljana.
Kranjc,A., 1993: The Skocjanske jame Caves. Nase jame, 35, 1, 57-65, Ljub ljana
Mihevc,A., 1992: Cave tourism and the problems of the cave protection in Slovenia. Educating for Sustainable Tourism, Proceedings of the International Conference held in Slovenia, September 17-24, 1992, 113-116, Ljubljana.
Slabe,T., 1992: Naravni in poskusni obnaplavinski jamski skalni relief. ( Natural and Experimental Cave Rocky Relief on the Contact of Water and Sediments) Acta carsologica, 21, 9-34, Ljubljana.
Zupan-Hajna,N., 1992: Mineralna sestava mehanskih sedimentov iz nekaterih delov slovenskega krasa. (Mineral Composition of Mechanical Sediments from Some Parts on Slovenian Karst) Acta carsologica, 21, 117-130, Ljubljana.
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